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Abbreviations, and Indentation

2/19
Recursos
Transcripci贸n

Capitalization is to write the first letter of a word with a capital letter (uppercase) and the remaining letters in lowercase.

English capitalization basic rules:

  • The pronoun 鈥淚鈥: My sister and I watch TV.

  • The first letter of a sentence: My name is Fernanda.

  • Names and Titles: This is Mr. Jones.

  • Cities and Countries: I live in Bogot谩, Colombia.

  • Nationalities and Languages: I am Brazilian, and I speak Portuguese.

  • Days / Months / Holidays: Today is Sunday, February 14th. It鈥檚 Valentine鈥檚 Day!

Abbreviations are any shortened form of a word. Two common types of abbreviations are acronyms and initialisms.

An acronym is an abbreviation formed from the initial letters of other words. You can pronounce it as a word.

  • NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration)

  • PIN (Personal Identification Number)

  • LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation)

An initialism is an abbreviation formed from the initial letters of other words. You cannot pronounce it as a word.

  • DIY (Do It Yourself)

  • USA (United States of America)

  • DVD (Digital Versatile Disk)

You can form other abbreviations by removing a few letters of a single word.

  • Titles: Mr. Jones (Mister) / Dr. Gonzalez (Doctor)

  • Times / Dates: 10 am (ante meridiem) / **Jan. **(January) / Mon. (Monday)

  • Places: 5th Ave.*(Avenue) / Main St(Street)

  • Units of measurement: 20 g(grams) / 80 oz (ounces)

Be careful!

These abbreviations are only for writing. Say the complete word when speaking. Also, the punctuation may vary when using American English and British English:

American English: abbreviations always finish with a period (Mr. / Dr. / Mon. / etc.).

British English: abbreviations only finish with a period when they do not end with the same letter of the original word (Mr / Dr / Mon. / etc.).

When writing a paragraph, it is necessary to pay attention to its format. There are two formats you can use:

  • First-line Indent: start your writing further away from the edge of the paper. It creates a faster and also linear experience for the reader. It is common in fiction, narrative, biography, and scholarly publications.

  • Block: start your writing at the edge of the paper and use a margin of white space between paragraphs. In this way, the reader understands there is a new paragraph. It creates an idea of specific information in each paragraph. It is common in business guides and technical manuals.

Aportes 283

Preguntas 52

Ordenar por:

驴Quieres ver m谩s aportes, preguntas y respuestas de la comunidad?

**(Capitalization - Capitalizaci贸n): **Consists in make a letter into uppercase, e.g;

  • The first letter of a sentence
  • The pronoun 鈥淚鈥
  • Names and titles
  • Cities and Countries
  • Nationalities and Languages
  • Days / Months / Holidays
    // Note: Holidays = Vacaciones de d铆as festivos

(Abbreviation - Abreviaci贸n); A shortened form of a word or phrase

  • Acronyms:
    NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
    PIN: Personal Identification Number
  • Initialisms:
    USA: United States of America
    DVD: Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc
  • Abbreviations;
    Titles: Mr. (Mister = Se帽or), Dr. (Doctor)
    Places: Ave. (Avenue = Avenida), St (Street = Calle).
    Time / Dates: am. (Ante meridiem = Antes mediriano en lat铆n), Jan. (January = Enero), Mon. (Monday = Lunes)

(Indentation = Sangr铆a): A space at the beginning of a written line or paragraph.

Didn鈥檛 realize the differences that American and British English have when it comes to write or not a period after abbreviated words 馃槷 ! Great tip!



So, in British English would be
Mr / Dr / am / Jan. / Mon. / Ave / St /

Ave = we don鈥檛 add a period here because the original word finishes in 鈥渆鈥 - avenu e
St = we don鈥檛 add a period here because the original word finishes in 鈥渢鈥 - stree t
am = we don鈥檛 add a period here because the original word finishes in 鈥渕鈥 - ante meridie m

If it is something wrong, please write it down in the comments. 鉂わ笍

I did not know the dot issue in British english.

IMPORTANT These abbreviations only are for writting when you have you say it you must say the complete word.

Good class, sometimes I had these doubts between uppercase and lower case but today with this class, everything was clear for me.

Thanks teacher. 馃榾

Wow i learn a lot of things.


Interesting

The first line, drive the reader's look in a linear way.

Acronym: SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) and a initialism: TMI(To Much Information)

The block way, is a simple technique which don't leave indentation but instead leave a blank space between the blocks.

Wow first time I see the difference between American and British with the abbreviation

Remember that you can only use first-line indent or block, but never both.

Clase 2 - Abbreviations, and Indentation


Summary Class


驴Qu茅 es capitalization (capitalizaci贸n)?

  • Es cuando escribimos la primera letra de una palabra en may煤scula y el resto de la palabra va en min煤scula.

驴En qu茅 casos debemos usar capitalization (capitalizaci贸n) cuando escribimos?

  • La primera letra de una oraci贸n:
    • My first name is Carlos.
  • El pronombre 鈥淚鈥
    • My sister and I watch TV.
  • Nombres y t铆tulos
    • This is Mr. Jones.
  • Ciudades y pa铆ses
    • I live in Bogot谩, Colombia.
  • Nacionalidades e idiomas
    • I am Colombian, and I speak Spanish.
  • D铆as / Meses / Festivos
    • Today is Sunday, February 14th. It鈥檚 Valentine Day.

驴Qu茅 son las abbreviations (abreviaturas)?

  • Son formas cortas de una palabra un poco m谩s extensa.

驴Qu茅 tipos de Abbreviations (abreviaturas) existen?

  • Acr贸nimos
  • Inicialismo.
  • T铆tulos.
  • Lugares.
  • Horas / Fechas (Mes y d铆a)
  • Lugares.
  • Unidades de medida.

驴C贸mo se crean los acr贸nimos y los inicialismos?

  • Juntando la primera letra de cada palabra que queramos abreviar.

Ejemplos de Acronym Abbreviations.

  • PIN -> Personal Identification Number.
  • NASA -> National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
  • LASER -> Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.

Ejemplos de Initialism Abbreviations

  • DIY -> Do It Yourself.
  • USA -> United States of America.
  • DVD -> Digital Versatil Disk.

Ejemplos de titles abbreviations

  • Mr. Jones
  • Dr. Gonzalez.

Ejemplos de Places Abbreviation.

  • 5th Ave -> 5th Avenue
  • Main St. -> Main Street.

Ejemplos de Times / Dates Abbreviations

  • 10 am.
  • Jan -> January.
  • Mon -> Monday.

Ejemplos de Unit of measurement

  • 20 g -> 20 grams
  • 80 oz -> 80 ounces.

驴Las abreviaciones en el idioma ingl茅s solo se pueden usar a la hora de escribir?

  • S铆. Cuando queremos decir la palabra s铆 debemos de decir la palabra completa.

驴Qu茅 caracter铆stica debemos de tener en cuenta a la hora de usar abbreviations en el ingl茅s americano y el britanico?

  • Ingl茅s americano: En el ingl茅s americano siempre debemos de escribir al final de las abreviaturas un punto.
  • Ingl茅s britanico: En el ingl茅s britanico solo se escribe el punto al final de la abreviaci贸n cuando la 煤ltima letra de la abreviaci贸n es diferente con la que termina la palabra que queremos abreviar. Por ejemplo
    • Mr
    • Dr
    • Mon. -> Monday.

驴Qu茅 es la indentation?

  • Es el formato del p谩rrafo.

驴Qu茅 tipos de Indentation existen?

  • First-line indent.
  • Block.

驴C贸mo funciona la Identaci贸n 鈥淔irst-line indent鈥?

  • En este caso debemos de dejar un peque帽o espacio entre el borde y el comienzo de nuestro texto

驴En qu茅 casos podemos usar la indentaci贸n 鈥淔irst-line indent鈥?

  • Biograf铆as.
  • Narrativas.
  • Publicaciones acad茅micas.

驴C贸mo funciona la indentaci贸n 鈥渂lock鈥?

  • Cuando escribimos en este formato debemos de escribir nuestros texto en forma de bloque y dejar peque帽os espacios entre cada bloque.

驴En qu茅 casos usamos la indentaci贸n 鈥渂lock鈥?

  • Gu铆as
  • Manuales.
dar铆a lo que sea por estar contigo

鈥淐APITALIZATION, ABBREVIATION AND INDENTATION鈥




More abbreviation rules
鈼廟emember that periods are commonly used in abbreviations, but not in acronyms or contractions.

鈼廝luralize the abbreviations by adding an 鈥渟鈥, without an apostrophe.
Example:
鈥 Many CEOs of major MNCs

example of Capitalization number two
I am Korean

Abbreviation are the shorter form of words.

You can say an acronym as a word. Example USA,thats mean United States of America.

cool the in class englis

Initialism have to be pronounce letter by letter not as a word.

The first letter of a sentence
The pronoun 鈥淚鈥
Names and titles
Cities and Countries
Nationalities and Langua

Capitalizations
I liven in La Paz, Bolivia.
I am Bolivian, and I speak Spanish.
Today is Thursday, August 25th.

My first block

In the world the industry of construction produce 6.5 Billions Tons/year. We are talking about a construction and demolition waste C&DW. At the same time, the inefficient logistics that treats this kind of material generates considerable tons of CO2

If we want a change the world we must to be disrupt. We need to create impact metrics. And the most important, get to the concience of the people.

Capitalization:
Uppercase --> ABC
Lowercase --> abc

The pronoun 鈥淚鈥, first letter of sentences, names and titles, cities, countries, nationalities, languages, days, months, holidays have to use uppercase

Abbreviation can be acronyms or initialism

Excellent class! I did not the difference betweent American and British English in the use of the period (.) in case of an abbreviation nor the different paragraph formats.

We apply the abbreviations for Titles(Mr., Dr.), Places(Ave, St.), Times/Dates(am, Jan., Mon.) and Units of measurements (g, oz)

Hey, Platzinaut. 馃憖
My notes of the lesson, never stop learning. 馃憞

Capitalization, Abbreviation, and Indentation.

Capitalization

Is when you write the first letter of a word in upper case and the remaining letters in lowercase. There are some basic rules for that. Let鈥檚 see the first one:

  • The first letter of a sentence

My name is Fernanda

  • The pronoun 鈥淚鈥

My sister and I watch TV.

  • Names and Titles

This is Mr. Jones.

  • Cities and Countries

I live in Bogot谩, Colombia.

  • Nationalities and languages

I am Colombian, and I speak Spanish.

  • Days/Months/Holidays

Today is Sunday, February 14th. It鈥檚 Valentine鈥檚 Day!

Abbreviation

Abbreviations are the shortened form of a word, and we are going to start seeing two different types.

Acronym

We can form an acronym using the first letter of different words. You can say an acronym as a word. Examples:

  • PIN (Personal Identification Number)
  • Nasa (National Aeronautics and Space Administration)
  • LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation)

Initialism

It is similar to an acronym. We also form an initialism using the first letter of other words. But the difference here is you cannot say an initialism as a word. In this case, you have to say a letter by letter like:

  • DIY (Do It Yourself)
  • USA (United States of America)
  • DVD (Digital Versatile Disk)

You can also form some abbreviations by removing some letters of one single word.

  • Titles

Mr. Jones.

Dr. Gonzalez.

  • Places

5th Ave.

Main St.

  • Times/Dates

10 am.

Jan.

Mon.

  • Units of measurement

20 g.

80 oz.

In American English 馃嚭馃嚫

You normally put a period in the end of the abbreviation, like:

  • Mr.
  • Dr.
  • Mon.

In British English 馃嚞馃嚙

You only use the period in the end of the abbreviation if the last letter of the abbreviation is different from the original word.

  • Mr
  • Dr
  • Mon.

Paragraph Format

First-line Indent:

In this format, you have to leave a small space between the edge and the beginning of your text. You use this kind of format to write biographies, narratives and academic publications. This kind of format makes your reader read your text in a linear way.

Block

As the name says, we write our paragraphs in blocks, and instead of leaving a blank space in the edge of the paper, you are going to leave a blank space between paragraphs. This type of format gives the idea to your reader that all the information is inside each paragraph. Very common when you are writing guides or manuals.

Acronym

We can form an acronym using the first letter of different words. You can say an acronym as a word. Examples:

  • PIN (Personal Identification Number)
  • Nasa (National Aeronautics and Space Administration)
  • LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation)

Initialism

It is similar to an acronym. We also form an initialism using the first letter of other words. But the difference here is you cannot say an initialism as a word. In this case, you have to say a letter by letter like:

  • DIY (Do It Yourself)
  • USA (United States of America)
  • DVD (Digital Versatile Disk)

Capitalization
鈥 The first letter of a sentence
My name is Fernanda.
鈥 The pronoun "I"
My sister and I watch TV.
鈥 Names and Titles
This is Mr. Jones.

Abbreviations
鈥 Titles
Mr. Jones
Dr. Gonzalez
鈥 Times / Dates
10 am
Jan.
Mon.
鈥 Places
5th Ave.
Main St.
鈥 Units of measurement
20 g
80 oz

Acronym
鈥 PIN (Personal Identification Number)
鈥 NASA (National Aeronautics and Space
Administration)
鈥 LASER (Light Amplification byStimulated
Emission of Radiation)

The punctuation may vary when using American English and British English.

I didn鈥檛 know they are called initialisms.

Exellent class!

DYOR 馃

thank you teacher

Thank you son much!!!

Excellent class!!!

**(Capitalization - Capitalizaci贸n): **Consists in make a letter into uppercase, e.g;

The first letter of a sentence
The pronoun 鈥淚鈥
Names and titles
Cities and Countries
Nationalities and Languages
Days / Months / Holidays
// Note: Holidays = Vacaciones de d铆as festivos
(Abbreviation - Abreviaci贸n); A shortened form of a word or phrase

Acronyms:
鈥 NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
鈥 PIN: Personal Identification Number
Initialisms:
鈥揢SA: United States of America
鈥揇VD: Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc
Abbreviations;
鈥 Titles: Mr. (Mister = Se帽or), Dr. (Doctor)
鈥 Places: Ave. (Avenue = Avenida), St (Street = Calle).
鈥 Time / Dates: am. (Ante meridiem = Antes mediriano en lat铆n), Jan. (January = Enero), Mon. (Monday = Lunes)
(Indentation = Sangr铆a): A space at the beginning of a written line or paragraph

good

nou

hi

excelent

馃榾

Thanks

Thanks

Good class!

So, in British English would be
Mr / Dr / am / Jan. / Mon. / Ave / St /

Ave = we don鈥檛 add a period here because the original word finishes in 鈥渆鈥 - avenu e
St = we don鈥檛 add a period here because the original word finishes in 鈥渢鈥 - stree t
am = we don鈥檛 add a period here because the original word finishes in 鈥渕鈥 - ante meridie m

If it is something wrong, please write it down in the comments.

cities and countries

Cool

IMPORTANT: These abbreviations only are for writting when you have you say it you must say the complete word.

new course

DIY (Do It Yourself)

USA (United States of America)

DVD (Digital Versatile Disk)

welcome

hello

yes

-The first letter of a sentence: My name is Fernanda.
-Nam-PIN (Personal Identification Number)

-PIN (Personal Identification Number)
-LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation).

-Places: 5th Ave./ Main St.
-Units of measurement: 20 g and 80 oz

-The first letter of a sentence: My name is Fernanda.
-Nam-PIN (Personal Identification Number)

-PIN (Personal Identification Number)
-LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation).

-Places: 5th Ave./ Main St.
-Units of measurement: 20 g and 80 oz

Class

Cool

In make

Consists

Block

Good

Capitalization

Inglich morning

Good inglich

Morning

Hello

Hello morning

Hello good

never stop learning

Thanks

USE CAPITAL LETTER:
The first letter of a sentence
The pronoun 鈥淚鈥
Names and titles
Cities and Countries
Nationalities and Languages
Days / Months / Holidays

cool

example Capitalization number three
I am Salvadorian

**(Capitalization - Capitalizaci贸n): **Consists in make a letter into uppercase, e.g;

The first letter of a sentence
The pronoun 鈥淚鈥
Names and titles
Cities and Countries
Nationalities and Languages
Days / Months / Holidays
// Note: Holidays = Vacaciones de d铆as festivos
(Abbreviation - Abreviaci贸n); A shortened form of a word or phrase

Acronyms:
鈥 NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
鈥 PIN: Personal Identification Number
Initialisms:
鈥揢SA: United States of America
鈥揇VD: Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc
Abbreviations;
鈥 Titles: Mr. (Mister = Se帽or), Dr. (Doctor)
鈥 Places: Ave. (Avenue = Avenida), St (Street = Calle).
鈥 Time / Dates: am. (Ante meridiem = Antes mediriano en lat铆n), Jan. (January = Enero), Mon. (Monday = Lunes)
(Indentation = Sangr铆a): A space at the beginning of a written line or paragraph.

馃憦馃憦馃憦

Excellent

Interesting

Wow i learn a lot of things.

USE CAPITAL LETTER:
The first letter of a sentence
The pronoun 鈥淚鈥
Names and titles
Cities and Countries
Nationalities and Languages
Days / Months / Holidays

nice

Names and Titles: This is Mr. Jones.

Cities and Countries: I live in Bogot谩, Colombia.

Nationalities and Languages: I am Brazilian, and I speak Portuguese.

Excellent

Trank you

Perfect

Happy

Hello

Goodness

We use capital letters when writing about cities and countries, nationalities and languages, days, months and holidays.

So, in British English would be
Mr / Dr / am / Jan. / Mon. / Ave / St /

Ave = we don鈥檛 add a period here because the original word finishes in 鈥渆鈥 - avenu e
St = we don鈥檛 add a period here because the original word finishes in 鈥渢鈥 - stree t
am = we don鈥檛 add a period here because the original word finishes in 鈥渕鈥 - ante meridie m

If it is something wrong, please write it down in the comments. 鉂わ笍

good

Hola, buenas tardes si se sopone que es basico ella no deberia hablar en ingles todo el tiempo

Didn鈥檛 realize the differences that American and British English have when it comes to write or not a period after abbreviated words 馃槷 ! Great tip!

examples of Capitalization number
I am Mexican.